Increasing Costs of Education In India
11 Aug 2021
The process of acquiring skills, knowledge, or facilitating learning through teaching,
researching, etc., is Education. It's divided into stages like preschool, primary school,
secondary school, college/university, and lastly, apprenticeship. In today's world,
education is a requirement for securing jobs and creating high-income opportunities.
Aside from those, it develops critical and logical thinking, enabling us to form
independent decisions. It improves the economy by giving poor people a chance to
transform their lives through better job opportunities, reducing poverty rates. It
introduces empowerment, mental agility to make the right decisions, treating everyone
as equals irrespective of caste, gender, race, culture, etc., and is the essence of the
Developmental projects have seen success in the Education sector with reducing
gender gaps(up to secondary school) and increased enrollment in school and higher
education. But, the obstacle of increasing expenses of education arises, where
education expansion is burdening households for paying fees. It's creating situations
where paying for education is impossible after secondary school, paying for even school
education nearly bleeds a person's bank balance. The Report of NSSO's 75th round of
"Household Social Consumption of Education in India" from July 2017 to June 2018
shows the same as above.
As per NSSO data
In Rural Areas:- 31.5% of children above the age of 15 were illiterate, 20.9% received
primary education, 17.2% were of upper primary/middle school. 24.9% of levels
secondary and higher secondary, and 5.7% were graduates and above.
In Urban Areas:- 13.9% above the age of 15 were literate, 14.7% literates up to the
primary, 14.0% of level upper primary/middle. 35.8% were of level secondary and
higher secondary, and 21.7% were graduate and above.
The Average Expenditure for general courses was Rs.8,331 and Rs.50,307 for
technical/ professional courses. The average payment pursuing general subjects at the
pre-primary level was Rs.1,030 in government institutions compared to Rs.12,834 in
private unaided institutions. At the primary level was Rs.1,253 in government institutions
compared to Rs.14,485 in private unaided institutions. Private unaided schools for
secondary education at Rs 20,804 versus Rs 4,078 of government schools.
The average expenditure in the current academic session for studying medicine was
Rs.31,309 in government institutions, Rs.1,01,154 in private aided, and 94,658 in
private unaided institutions. For the engineering course, the expenditures were Rs.
39,165, Rs. 66,272 and Rs.69,155 in government, private aided, and private unaided
The infusion of technology in the education sector is one reason for the increasing
education costs. Like the pandemic forcing people and schools to adapt to the digital
method of education, every student now needs a laptop or smartphone to attend online
classes. It significantly raises costs, as laptops are expensive. Moreover, textbooks,
uniforms, transport, etc., prices also add to the expenses of education. In rural areas,
less than one percent of students receive a graduate education. Tuition fees account for
50%, whereas the rest is for other requirements, as mentioned above. Books and other
material account for a substantial chunk of the money spent, especially in rural areas.
Private tuition prices remain significant, suggesting that the quality of the institutionally
provided learning is not good enough to meet the needs of students, despite the
relatively high costs. Enrolment in educational institutes comes at a substantial cost to
families. Families are losing their assets or going into debt just to educate their children.
Overall, rising costs of education are a burden on parents as a good education is quite
expensive. Especially graduate studies, making it hard for low wealth families to enroll
their children for higher education.