MIGRATION AND URBANIZATION
Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another. There are
various reasons why migration takes place. The reasons can be classified on three
bases: economic, social, environmental, and political:
Economic Migration: movement to find work or education.
Social Migration: movement for a better quality of life.
Environmental Migration: movement because of destruction caused by natural disasters
like floods, tsunami, earthquakes, etc.
Political Migration: moving to escape political persecution or war.
The following are different types of migration that take place:
⋅ Internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent.
⋅ External migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent.
⋅ Emigration: to leave one's country and live in another, temporarily.
⋅ Immigration: to move to another country to live there permanently.
⋅ Return migration: moving back to where you came from. ⋅ Seasonal migration: moving
with each season or in response to climate conditions.
Migrants are divided into many groups:
⋅ An immigrant is someone who moves from one country to another.
⋅ An immigrant is a person who travels from one nation to another in search of a new
⋅ A refugee is someone who has relocated to a new nation due to a difficulty in their
Mostly, people migrate from rural to urban areas, developing countries to developed
countries which leads to development of those cities and countries. This is called
Urbanization leads to improvement in standards of living. Advancements in technology
in urban areas can provide the services to the people there. Proper medical care,
education etc.; are more developed in urban areas. Even recreational facilities are more
advanced in urban settlements.
Since so many people migrate to urban areas, there is an increase in population, which
leads to a lack in housing facilities. Many people are forced to share small living spaces
which creates scarcity of basic amenities and increases the expenses of living in those
areas. Although the main reason for people to migrate is work, as there is such a big
population shift, there is a possibility that employing all the people may not be possible,
thus resulting in unemployment. Moreover, jobs have become highly specialized, not
everyone can meet all the job requirements of a profile. This eventually leads to an
increase in the slum areas of the city. Today major problems faced by urbanization are
water scarcity in big cities. There are a lot people in extremely small areas, which leads
to an inadequate
amount of sanitation. Due to unemployment, an increase in the expense of living, and a
shortage of basic needs, there is an increase in the crime rates. This disturbs the peace
and the stability of the city. The best instance for this is New York City. Many people
across the globe migrate to New York City for a better, sustainable life, with
employment opportunities. As a consequence, New York City has become one of the
most expensive countries to live in, though it faces deficiency in water and has the
largest slum area in the world.
India's former Prime Minister, Mr. Man Mohan Singh once said, "Urbanization is the
inevitable outcome of the processes of growth and the processes of modernization."
Although initially, this was a sign of growth and development, things are no longer the
same. Rather than urbanization, together with the government, we should take
measures to develop the rural areas and make them a better place to live a good life.